Dr. Samuel Andrew Hardy (e-mail)

Peer-reviewed articles and chapters

Hardy, S A. 2017: “Quantitative analysis of open-source data on metal detecting for cultural property: Estimation of the scale and intensity of metal detecting and the quantity of metal-detected cultural goods”. Cogent Social Sciences, Volume 3, Number 1. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “The conflict antiquities trade: A historical overview”. In Desmarais, F (Ed.). Countering the illicit traffic in cultural goods: The global challenge of protecting the world’s heritage, 21-31. Paris: International Council of Museums (ICOM). [pdf]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Destruction, theft and rescue of archaeological artefacts in Cyprus, 1963-1974: From the intercommunal conflict until the foreign invasions”. In Jacobs, A and Cosyns, P (Eds.). Cypriot material culture studies, from picrolite carving to proskynitaria analysis: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Postgraduate Cypriot Archaeology Conference held in honour of the memory of Paul Åström at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium), 27th-29th November 2008, 329-345. Brussels: VUBPRESS. [pdf]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Is looting-to-order ‘just a myth’? Open-source analysis of theft-to-order of cultural property.” Cogent Social Sciences, Volume 1. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Online resistance to precarious archaeological labour”. Internet Archaeology, Volume 39. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Using open-source data to identify participation in the illicit antiquities trade: A case study on the Cypriot civil war”. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, Volume 20, Number 4, 459-474. [pdf]

Stylianou-Lambert, T, Bounia, A and Hardy, S A. 2014: “Resisting institutional power: The women of St. Barnabas”. Visitor Studies, Volume 17, Number 1, 3-23. [abstract/html] [Contact me for details]

Hardy, S A. 2013: “Maintained in Very Good Condition or Virtually Rebuilt? Destruction of Cultural Property and Narration of Violent Histories.” Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, Volume 23, Number 1, Article 14, 1-9. [html]

Edited articles and chapters

Hardy, S A. Under review: “Antiquities rescue or ransom? The cost of buying back stolen cultural property.” In Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Ed.). Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Experts on the Return of Cultural Property, Nevşehir, Turkey, 18th-22nd October 2015. Ankara: Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. [pdf]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Virtues impracticable and extremely difficult: The human rights of subsistence diggers”. In González-Ruibal, A and Moshenska, G (Eds.). Ethics and the archaeology of violence, 229-239. London: Springer. [abstract/uncorrected proof/official publication]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “The looting of archaeological heritage: The politics of archaeological work in structurally weak places – Frankfurt in Nigeria”. AP: Online Journal in Public Archaeology, Volume 4, 23-29. [link]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Obstacles to Career Progression in Archaeology: Precarious Labour and Unemployment”. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, Volume 24, Number 1, Article 21, 1-6. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Threats to cultural heritage in the Cyprus Conflict”. In Grove, L and Thomas, S (Eds.). Heritage crime: Progress, prospects and prevention, 81-104. London: Palgrave Macmillan. [abstract/uncorrected proof/final publication]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “‘A masterpiece in political propaganda’ and a futile exercise in archaeological blogging”. In Rocks-Macqueen, D and Webster, C (Eds.). Blogging archaeology, 93-120. Sheffield: Landward Research with Succinct Research and DIGTECH. [chapter/book]

Hardy, S A. 2013: “The facts in the ground: Archaeological resistance during Occupy Gezi”. International State Crime Initiative, 3rd August. [html/(fully-referenced) html]


Hardy, S A. 2017: “The archaeological profession and human rights”. In Moshenska, G (Ed.). Key concepts in public archaeology. London: UCL Press. [html]


Hardy, S A. 2016: Illicit trafficking, provenance research and due diligence: The state of the art. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). [pdf]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “How market regulation can constrict conflict antiquities trading”. Scoping review conducted for Global Witness, London, UK, 27th April-29th May.

Media articles, interviews and posts

Hardy, S A and Trad, R. 2016: “Instability in the Middle East is fueling an illicit antiquities trade”. Muftah, 26th April. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2016: “Pornographic iconoclasm in terrorist propaganda: Islamic State cinema and audience reactions”. In Eckstein, W (Ed.). Iconoclash: Articles, speeches and excerpts from panel discussions in Washington DC, 2015-2016, 62-63. Washington, D.C.: Goethe-Institut Washington. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2016: “Archaeomafias traffic antiquities as well as drugs”. UNESCO Wide Angle, 28th March. [html]

Hardy, S A and Adams, P. 2015: “Conflict antiquities: Tracing the profits of doom”. Late Night Live [ABC], 29th July. [mp3]

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Landmark Sufi shrine destroyed by Islamists in Yemen”. Hyperallergic, 11th February. [html]

Hardy, S A and Aghlani, S. 2015: “Tomb raiders and the profits of doom”. The World Today, Volume 71, Number 1, 29-30. [html/pdf]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Significant 13th-century complex bombed in Syria”. Hyperallergic, 12th December. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “UN Maps Reveal Destruction of Thousands of Cultural Sites Across Syria”. Hyperallergic, 11th December. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Militants destroy Iraqi convent”. Hyperallergic, 9th December. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Lobbyist misleads on Islamic State antiquities trafficking”. Hyperallergic, 8th December. [html]

Leutheuser, R and Hardy, S A. 2014: “‘Joyfully defiant’: A photographic introduction to the Kurds”. Hyperallergic, 2nd December. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Tomb of Saddam Hussein’s father allegedly destroyed”. Hyperallergic, 1st December. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “German media may corroborate $36m Islamic State antiquities trafficking”. Hyperallergic, 28th November. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Evidence points to fresh destruction of Yazidi temples by Islamic State”. Hyperallergic, 25th November. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Who blew up the Armenian Genocide memorial church in Deir el-Zour?” Hyperallergic, 11th November. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Hunger strike averted as Turkey ups art and heritage jobs”. Hyperallergic, 10th November. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Assessing the destruction of Yezidi shrines”. Hyperallergic, 5th November. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Turkish and Kurdish sites burned in nights of unrest”. Hyperallergic, 4th November. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “The first shrine of its kind in Iraq is destroyed”. Hyperallergic, 31st October. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Cultural workers in Turkey prepare for hunger strike over underemployment”. Hyperallergic, 28th October. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “How the West buys ‘conflict antiquities’ from Iraq and Syria (and funds terror)”. Reuters, 27th October. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Unpaid labour in public archaeology”. The Forum Dispatch, Number 13 [Winter 2013], 12-14. [pdf]

Hardy, S A e d’Amore, A. 2013: “#FreeArchaeology: Una chiaccheriata con Sam Hardy di (Un)Free Archaeology [#FreeArchaeology: A chat with Sam Hardy of (Un)Free Archaeology]”. Le Parole in Archeologia, 13 novembre. [html]

Hardy, S A and Schuldenrein, J. 2013: “Cash for artifacts: The state of the illegal antiquities trade”. Indiana Jones: Myth, Reality and 21st-Century Archaeology [Voice America], 28th August. [stream/mp3]

Hardy, S A and Pantland, W. 2013: “Unpaid internships in the heritage industry”. USI Live, 22nd August. [stream/mp3]

Hardy, S A. 2013: “Semni Karouzou: Visible resistance”. Trowelblazers, 12th June. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2012: “Antiquities trade in Nigeria: Looting in the midst of crisis”. Vanguard [Nigeria], 1st November. [html/(complete) html]

Hardy, S A. 2012: “Karavostasi/Gemikonağı, Cyprus”. Then Dig, 11th March. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2011: “Breaking the news”. Then Dig, 23rd June. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2008: “Η καταστροφή της μουσουλμανικής κυπριακής πολιτιστικής κληρονομιάς [the destruction of Muslim Cypriot cultural heritage])”. Εργατική Δημοκρατία, Τεύχος 145, 22. [pdf]

Hardy, S A en van Wilgenburg, W. 2007: “Student bezoekt verkeerde gebieden [student visits wrong areas]”. Azady, 28 Augustus. (Van Wilgenburg, W, (Tr.).) [html]

Doctoral thesis

Hardy, S A. 2011: Interrogating archaeological ethics in conflict zones: Cultural heritage work in Cyprus. Brighton: University of Sussex – DPhil thesis. [abstract/(official) pdf/(print) pdf/British Library/Sussex Research Online]

Book reviews

Hardy, S A. 2012: “Book review: The protection of cultural property in armed conflict. By Roger O’Keefe. Pp. xix, 404. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011 [2006] £31.99. (PB) ISBN 9780521172875”. Public Archaeology, Volume 11, Number 1, 53-55. [pdf]

Knowledge mobilisation

Hardy, S A. 2011-present: Conflict Antiquities [research blog].

Hardy, S A. 2013-2015: Unfree Archaeology [research blog].

  • Discussed in ANSAmed (14th November 2013)
  • Discussed in ANSAmed (15th November 2013)
  • Cited by Jadaliyya (17th April 2014)

Hardy, S A. 2005-2011: Cultural Heritage in Conflict [research blog].

Selected papers

“‘Half-arsed organization’ of crime: Open-source analysis of metal detecting and antiquities trafficking.” Paper presented at the Illicit Networks Workshop, London, UK, 7th-8th December 2016.

“How to dig up antiquities legally at night: Netnography of licit metal detecting.” Paper presented at the Queen Mary-Renmin Criminal Justice Conference on Transnational Crime, London, UK, 1st-2nd December 2016.

“Open-source investigations of antiquities trafficking by states, non-state armed groups and organised criminals: What we know and how we know it.” Paper presented at the WCO PICARD Conference, Manila, Philippines, 27th-29th September.

“Plundered treasures and warmongers, from the British Empire to the Islamic State.” Paper presented at St. Stephen’s International School, Rome, Italy, 19th September.

“Urban development and the resistance of archaeology.” Paper presented at the Newton Fund/British Council Workshop on ‘Counting Our Losses’: the Politics of Loss and Social Transformation in the Context of Migration and Displacement in Turkey, London, UK, 7th-10th September.

“Stealing from the poor to give to the rich: The trafficking of conflict antiquities around the world and the financing of rebellion, repression and terrorism in Syria.” Paper presented at the Conference of the British Society of Criminology, Nottingham, UK, 6th-8th July 2016.

“The importance of being diligent.” Paper presented at the Association for Research into Crimes against Art Conference, Amelia, Italy, 24th-26th June 2016.

“State of trafficking in cultural property in 2016.” Paper presented at the UNESCO Round Table Discussion on the Movement of Cultural Property in 2016: Regulation, International Cooperation and Professional Diligence for the Protection of Cultural Heritage, Paris, France, 30th March 2016. [pdf]

“‘Blood clings to these things’: Uncovering the trade in conflict antiquities.” Paper presented at the Symposium on Art and Terrorism, London, UK, 27th February 2016.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Destruction of cultural and community property in the Cyprus Conflict”. Invited presentation at and participation in the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) meeting Towards a MENA Handbook to Implement the Pinheiro Principles on Housing and Property Restitution, Beirut, Lebanon, 19th-20th November.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “From the invention of ruins to the end of the national museum”. Invited talk with Ali Cherri at Ashkal Alwan’s Home Works 7, Beirut, Lebanon, 15th November.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Antiquities rescue or ransom? The cost of buying back stolen cultural property.” Invited presentation at the 5th UNESCO International Conference of Experts on the Return of Cultural Property, Nevşehir, Turkey, 18th-22nd October.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Antiquities trafficking in the Syrian civil war: A ‘vital source of funding’?” Public lecture at the American University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 23rd September.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “A ‘vital source of funding’: Conflict antiquities in the Syrian civil war.” Paper presented at the Association for Research into Crimes against Art Conference, Amelia, Italy, 27th-28th June.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Conflict antiquities.” Invited presentation at the Queen Mary University of London Workshop on Art Crime: Sketching Boundaries and Mapping Prevalence, London, UK, 14th May.

Hardy, S A. 2015: Looting of historic sites in Syria.” Private briefings of MPs around the parliamentary debate on Destruction of Historic Sites (Syria and Iraq) at the House of Commons, London, UK, February.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “Syrian heritage in crisis.” Invited participation in the Council for British Research in the Levant panel discussion at the British Academy, London, UK, 16th January.

Hardy, S A. 2015: “A very dirty business in a very dirty war: The illicit trade in Syrian antiquities.” Invited School of Humanities Research Seminar at Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UK, 14th January.

Hardy, S A. 2014: “A very dirty business in a very dirty war: The trade in conflict antiquities from Syria and Iraq.” Paper presented at the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), Rome, Italy, 18th November.

Hardy, S A. 2014: “Cultural asset crime: The impact of the illicit antiquities trade on vulnerable economies.” Paper presented at the Annual Joint Queen Mary University of London and Renmin University Conference on Criminal Justice, 17th-18th October.

Hardy, S A. 2014: “A very dirty business in a very dirty war: The illicit trade in Syrian antiquities.” Lecture presented at the Department of Archaeology, Mardin Artuklu University, Mardin, Turkey, 9th January. [ppt] [Preprint release date: 2nd March 2014]

Hardy, S A. 2010: “Maintained in very good condition? Virtually rebuilt. Cultural heritage site histories and public narratives.” Paper presented at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Cyprus Centre Conference on Conflicts and Values of Heritage: the Cyprus Case and Beyond, Nicosia, Cyprus, 12th-13th November.

Hardy, S A. 2010: “Cypriot antiquities rescue from the Turkish deep state: the rescue of forgeries and the death of Stephanos Stephanou.” Paper presented at the World Archaeological Congress (WAC) International Conference on Archaeology in Conflict, Vienna, Austria, 6th-10th April. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2009: “The liberation of censorship in Cypriot archaeology: Representations of a suppressed UNESCO report in histories of cultural heritage destruction”. Paper presented at the Histories of Archaeology Research Network Conference, Cambridge, UK, 14th March. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2008: “Treatment of cultural heritage in Cyprus, 1963-1974: Selling antiquities, buying bread and bombs”. Paper presented at the Postgraduate Cypriot Archaeology Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 27th-29th November.

Hardy, S A. 2008: “Cultural heritage ethics in a divided Cyprus”. Paper presented at the 6th World Archaeological Congress, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, 29th June-4th July. [html]

Hardy, S A. 2005: “Is there a human right to loot?” Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, USA, 30th March-3rd April.

Hardy, S A. 2004: “Is there a human right to loot?” Paper presented at the Theoretical Archaeology Group Conference, Glasgow, UK, 17th-19th December.

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